Variables and Datatypes

Every programming language has its own grammar rules just like the languages we speak.

Keywords and Identifiers

The following identifiers are used as reserved words, or keywords of the language, and cannot be used as ordinary identifiers. They must be typed exactly as written here:

False      class      finally    is         return
None       continue   for        lambda     try
True       def        from       nonlocal   while
and        del        global     not        with
as         elif       if         or         yield
assert     else       import     pass
break      except     in         raise

In Python we don’t specify what kind of data we are going to put in a variable. So you can directly write abc = 1 and abc will become an integer datatype. If you write abc = 1.0 abc will become of floating type. Here is a small program to add two given numbers

>>> a = 13
>>> b = 23
>>> a + b
36

From the above example you can understand that to declare a variable in Python , what you need is just to type the name and the value. Python can also manipulate strings They can be enclosed in single quotes or double quotes like

>>> 'India'
'India'
>>> 'India\'s best'
"India's best"
>>> "Hello World!"
'Hello World!'

Reading input from the Keyboard

Generally the real life Python codes do not need to read input from the keyboard. In Python we use input function to do input. input(“String to show”) , this will return a string as output. Let us write a program to read a number from the keyboard and check if it is less than 100 or not. Name of the program is testhundred.py

#!/usr/bin/env python3
number = int(input("Enter an integer: "))
if number < 100:
    print("Your number is smaller than 100")
else:
    print("Your number is greater than 100")

The output

$ ./testhundred.py
Enter an integer: 13
Your number is smaller than 100
$ ./testhundred.py
Enter an integer: 123
Your number is greater than 100

In the next program we are going to calculate investments.

#!/usr/bin/env python3
amount = float(input("Enter amount: "))
inrate = float(input("Enter Interest rate: "))
period = int(input("Enter period: "))
value = 0
year = 1
while year <= period:
    value = amount + (inrate * amount)
    print("Year %d Rs. %.2f" % (year, value))
    amount = value
    year = year + 1

The output

$ ./investment.py
Enter amount: 10000
Enter Interest rate: 0.14
Enter period: 5
Year 1 Rs. 11400.00
Year 2 Rs. 12996.00
Year 3 Rs. 14815.44
Year 4 Rs. 16889.60
Year 5 Rs. 19254.15

Some Examples

Some examples of variables and datatypes:

Average of N numbers

In the next program we will do an average of N numbers.

#!/usr/bin/env python3
N = 10
sum = 0
count = 0
while count < N:
    number = float(input(""))
    sum = sum + number
    count = count + 1
average = float(sum)/N
print("N = %d , Sum = %f" % (N, sum))
print("Average = %f" % average)

The output

$ ./averagen.py
1
2.3
4.67
1.42
7
3.67
4.08
2.2
4.25
8.21
N = 10 , Sum = 38.800000
Average = 3.880000

Temperature conversion

In this program we will convert the given temperature to Celsius from Fahrenheit by using the formula C=(F-32)/1.8

#!/usr/bin/env python3
fahrenheit = 0.0
print("Fahrenheit Celsius")
while fahrenheit <= 250:
    celsius = ( fahrenheit - 32.0 ) / 1.8 # Here we calculate the Celsius value
    print("%5.1f %7.2f" % (fahrenheit , celsius))
    fahrenheit = fahrenheit + 25

The output

$ ./temperature.py
Fahrenheit Celsius
0.0  -17.78
25.0   -3.89
50.0   10.00
75.0   23.89
100.0   37.78
125.0   51.67
150.0   65.56
175.0   79.44
200.0   93.33
225.0  107.22
250.0  121.11

Multiple assignments in a single line

You can even assign values to multiple variables in a single line, like

>>> a , b = 45, 54
>>> a
45
>>> b
54

Using this swapping two numbers becomes very easy

>>> a, b = b , a
>>> a
54
>>> b
45

To understand how this works, you will have to learn about a data type called tuple. We use comma to create tuple. In the right hand side we create the tuple (we call this as tuple packing) and in the left hand side we do tuple unpacking into a new tuple.

Below we have another example of tuple unpacking.

>>> data = ("Kushal Das", "India", "Python")
>>> name, country, language = data
>>> name
'Kushal Das'
>>> country
'India'
>>> language
'Python'